vulnerable southern border. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring and especially after the electoral protests that took place in Russia in 2011-12, they started to emphasize the danger to Russia posed by externally fomented domestic protests and regime change. Moreover, Russian leaders do not really have a well-developed strategy on how to achieve this in their immediate neighborhood. Economic interests are related primarily to energy sales, while politically Russia seeks to weaken European institutions in order to work bilaterally with individual states. Finally, Russias turn toward Asia has so far been expressed more in rhetoric than in actual policy. The doctrine accordingly identifies military risks associated with bringing the military infrastructure of nato member countries near the borders of the Russian Federation and with the deployment (build-up) of military contingents of foreign states (groups of states) on the territories of states contiguous with the. The specific dangers, whether from nato or elsewhere, may be much the same, but from Russia's perspective, they appear to have grown more immediate. As a result, Western observers often see Russia as having an aggressive and revanchist mindset, even as Russian leaders perceive their actions as aimed entirely at shoring up their vulnerable security position. The new doctrine describes war prevention as a cornerstone of military policy.
As is usually the case, the Russian military doctrine does not mention any threats posed by China. Western planners need to keep in mind that Russian leaders see Russia as weaker than its adversaries and very much on the defensive. While Western readers might immediately see aspects of this as strikingly descriptive of Russia's activities in Ukraine (and the. Russian leaders concerns about threats to Russian nuclear deterrence capabilities have in recent years moved concept and definition essay beyond missile defense to include a variety of new technologies, such as the Prompt Global Strike concept for the development of conventional strategic precision-guided munitions and weapons fired from space. English translation of the doctrine).